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MLA Style Guide, 8th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for MLA style formatting of papers and citations.

In-Text Citations

Direct Quote

If the author(s) of the source are not introduced in the text leading to the quote, include their last names at the end of the quotation along with the page number.


Their book mentions that these “notions of sisterhood, as expressed in the current women’s movement, offer some insights into the alienation many black women have expressed about the movement itself” (Guidroz and Berger 27).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

Guidroz, Kathleen, and Michele Tracy Berger. The Intersectional Approach: Transforming the Academy through Race, Class, and Gender. U of North Carolina P, 2009. Ebook Collection (EBSCOhost), Accessed 7 Aug. 2015.

Direct Quote - Author Introduced in Text

When the author(s) of the source are introduced in the text leading to the quote, only the page number is included at the end of the sentence.


As reported by Holland, the Department of Defense “issued a directive telling senior leaders they must now assess and plan for the risks posed by climate change” (60).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

Holland, Andrew. "Preventing Tomorrow's Climate Wars." Scientific American, vol. 314, no. 6, June 2016, pp. 60-65. MEDLINE, Accessed 7 Sept. 2016.

Paraphrased Idea

If the author(s) of the source are not introduced in the text leading to the paraphrased idea, include their last name(s) at the end of the paraphrased section along with the page number.


This court case between Jack Kirby and Marvel Comics over the rights to many major comic book characters including the Avengers and Captain America was eventually decided in Marvel Comics favor, to the outrage of many fans (House 933).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

House, Meredith Annan. "Marvel V. Kirby: A Clash Of Comic Book Titans In The Work Made For Hire Arena." Berkeley Technology Law Journal, vol. 30, no. 835, 2 Sept. 2015, pp. 933-964. Business Source Complete, Accessed 3 Sept. 2015.

Paraphrase - Author Introduced in Text

If the author(s) of the source are introduced in the text leading to the paraphrased idea, only the page number is included at the end of the sentence.


According to Mattessich, the documentary Grizzly Man is a good example of the idea of the global man or animal (53).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

Mattessich, Stefan. "An Anguished Self-Subjection: Man and Animal in Werner Herzog's Grizzly Man." English Studies in Canada, vol. 39, no. 1, March 2013, pp. 51-70. Academic Search Complete, Accessed 15 Nov. 2015.

No Author

If there is no identified author of the source, include a shortened version of the title at the end of the direct quote or paraphrased idea along with the page number.


It seems that “despite women’s gains, a large gender pay gap still exists” (“Gender Pay Gap” 1).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

“Gender Pay Gap, Recent Trends and Explanations.” Council of Economic Advisors Issue Brief, April 2015. The Whitehouse, _issue_brief_final.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2016.

Webpage, Website, or Media

When citing media or a website, with no clear author, use a shortened version of the title after your quote or paraphrased idea. For self-contained or longer sources, the title of the source should be italicized (see Core Elements #2- Title of Source).  Media or websites may not have page numbers to include in the in-text citation. However, you may include other identifying markers such as paragraph or section numbers (e.g. sec. 8) or time-based markers (e.g. 01:28:3-7) for audio or video recordings.


Because the western diet has changed so much in the last several decades, more and more children are becoming obese and developing diabetes. (In Defense 00:06:28)

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

In Defense of Food: An Eaters Manifesto. Performance by Michael Pollan, PBS, 2014. Films on Demand, Accessed 7 Sept. 2016.

Block Quote

For quotations that are more than four lines, place the quotations in a block of text without quotation marks. The entire quotation should be indented one inch from the margin and should maintain double-spacing. The in-text citation should be placed in parenthesis after the period at the end of the quoted section.


Of course, it can always be said that:

If we define Afrofuturism as African American cultural production and political theory that imagine less constrained black subjectivity in the future and that produce a profound critique of current social, racial, and economic orders, then there can be no doubt that Monáe stands at the center of a new form of Afrofuturism that she performs through what the liner notes from her EP Metropolis (inspired by Fritz Lang’s classic 1927 film of the same name) term “cybersoul,” a complex blend of multiple, often technologically mediated musical genres. (English and Kim 217)

Corresponding Works Cited Entry

English, Daylanne K., and Alvin Kim. "Now We Want Our Funk Cut: Janelle Monáe's Neo-Afrofuturism." American Studies, vol. 52, no. 4, 2013, pp. 217-230.