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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

About Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media may include TV, film, music, podcasts, scores, and more. The formatting for these references follows pattern depending on whether the work stands alone (e.g. album, podcast series) or is a part of a greater whole (e.g. song on an album). Visit the APA Style Website for full instructions and more examples of how to cite audiovisual materials.

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets in the title of the reference. What is listed in the source element of the reference will depend on whether the work stands alone or is part of a greater whole. If the source stands alone include the name of the production company, label, or other publisher. If the source is part of the greater whole, include the title of the whole as well as the name of the producer, label, or publisher.

Television, Film, and Other Video

It is not necessary to specify how you watched the material, but the format or other descriptive information may be included in square brackets at the end of the title.

Television Episode


Moore, R. (Writer & Executive producer) & Dahl, J. (Director). (2014, August 9). Sassenach [Television series episode]. In Outlander. Meridian, CO: Starz.‚Äč

Whedon, J. (Writer & Director). (1999). Hush [Television series episode]. In S. Gallin (Executive producer) Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Los Angeles, CA: Mutant Enemy.

Television Series


Rimes, S. (Executive Producer). (2015-2018). Grey’s Anatomy. Los Angeles, CA: Shondaland.

Daniels, G. & Schur, M. (Executive Producers). (2009-2015). Parks and Recreation. Los Angeles, CA: Deedle-Dee Productions/Universal Media Studios.


For film titles in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the title in square brackets.


Glotzer, L. (Executive producer), Lester, D. (Executive producer), & Darabont, F. (Director). (1994). The Shawshank redemption [Motion picture]. United States: Castle Rock Entertainment.

Fancher, H. (Executive producer), Kelly, B. (Executive producer), & Scott, R. (Director). (1992). Blade runner: Director's cut [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.

Video on a Website

To reference YouTube and other video hosting sites, put in the author position the person who posted the video with the screen name in brackets. If the user's real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets. A format type is included in brackets.


Kimbel Library. (2010, July 22). Why citation is important [Video].

THNKR. (2012, August 30). The speech that made Obama president [Video].

Millman, D. (2019, December). How symbols and brands shape our humanity [Video]. TED Conferences.