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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

Interviews and Personal Communication

Published Interview (Print, Broadcast, or on a Website)

Published interviews are referenced following the rules for the medium in which they are published. Below are examples of interviews published in print, on a website, and in a podcast.


Bryan, A. G. (2012). Kagan's Teachers: The 9th justice talks about her influences in writing, reading and reasoning. ABA Journal, 98(9), pp. 25-26.

Chang, J. (2012, December). Interview with John Green.

Manzano, S. (2016, September 14). Sonia Manzano & Justice Sonia Sotomayor [Audio podcast].

Non-Published Conversations

Any of your conversations that are not published are considered personal communication in APA Style. This can include things like email conversations, phone interviews, and face-to-face interviews.

These types of sources are cited in-text only (in the body of your paper). The reason for this is that your references are designed to point the reader to the original source so they can explore it further. In these cases, your reader wouldn’t have access to your personal notes or recordings, so it’s not appropriate to include the information in your list of references.

Example of In-Text Citation

Bond indicated the library would be moving to an online reservation system for group study rooms (E. Bond, personal communication, September 15, 2015).