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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

Websites and Webpages

Entire Website

If you are describing an entire website, but not referring to a specific fact or idea from the site, it is OK to simply list the URL in an in-text citation. You do not need to include it in your list of references.


The KhanAcademy website hosts excellent instructional videos on a variety of subjects (


If your research source is one article/page on a much larger website, your citation should begin with the author or if no specific person is named, the name of the organization responsible for the information.

Basic Format for a Webpage

Author(s)’ Last Name(s), Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of document. Site Name. http://URL

Example with an author

Brooks, K. J. (2020, February 4). Macy's to close 125 stores over the next three years. CBS News.

Example with no author

US election 2020: What is a caucus and how do they work? (2020, February 4). BBC News.

Example with no date

National Nurses United. (n.d.) What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.

Newspaper Article on Website

News articles may be referenced differently depending on whether or not there is an associated newspaper with the same content. If there is an associated newspaper, cite the article following the rules for a print newspaper. Include a DOI if there is one available. If the article is from a news website that does not have an associated newspaper, use the format for a webpage on a news website instead of the format for an article (ex. HuffPost).

Example with an associated newspaper

Kalb, L. (2016, September 21). Interim UCD Chancellor urges civility in dialogue. Sacramento Bee, p. 3A.

Basic format without an associated newspaper

Author(s)’ Last Name(s), Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of News Source. http://URL

Magazine Article on a Website

If a DOI has been assigned, include it in the reference. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, include the URL for the website where the article was retrieved.


Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982.

Deresiewcz, W. (2014, December 28). The death of the artist - and the birth of the creative entrepreneur. The Atlantic.

Journal Article from a Website

Some publishers assign a digital object identifier (DOI) to online publications. Because URLs are sometimes not stable, it’s desirable to use the DOI if it is available. If no DOI is listed, try searching

If the source does not have a DOI, cite the Web address for the source (URL).


Sajid, M., Tahira, P., Allah, D., Faisa, I., & Jaishri, M. (2014). Effectiveness of school-based intervention programs in reducing prevalence of overweight. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 39(2), 87-93.

MacKean, P.R., Stewart, M., & Maddocks, H.L. (2016, August). Psychosocial diagnoses occurring after patients present with fatigue. Canadian Family Physician, 62(8), pp. e465–e472.‚Äč

Video on a Website

For YouTube and other video hosting sites, the person who posted the video is put in the author position with the screen name in brackets. If the user's real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets. A format type is included in brackets. Other video examples can be found on the TV, Film & Video tab.


Kimbel Library. (2010, July 22). Why citation is important [Video].

THNKR. (2012, August 30). The speech that made Obama president [Video].

Millman, D. (2019, December). How symbols and brands shape our humanity [Video]. TED Conferences.

Artwork on a Website (including photography, paintings, sculpture, etc.)

The goal of your reference is to contain enough information to lead your reader to the source you used in the most concise manner possible. According to the APA Style website at minimum, artwork references should include the artist's name, year(s) of fabrication, title of the work, any other necessary or relevant information (such as the medium), and the location. Remember that reusable art, such as clipart, is treated differently than other artwork.


Smith, S. (2016, July 21). Sunflower field [Photograph]. Provence, France.

Goya y Lucientes, F. (1800). The family of Carlos IV [Painting]. Madrid, Spain: Museo Nacional del Prado.

Klee, P. (1922). Twittering machine [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.

Comment on a Webpage

According to the guidelines, the commenters' name (whether real or a username) is listed as the author, and a source description is added in brackets. Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment, and then write "Comment on the article" and the title of the article on which the comment was made. If possible, link to the comment and use a URL shortener if needed.


According to the APA guidelines, when citing Wikis, include the date of publication for archived wikis or for wikis without an archive include the date of access because these sources are likely to change over time and it's helpful for your reader to know when you accessed the material.

A important question though is "Should I be using a Wiki in my college-level assignment?" Most often, the answer would be no. This goes back to authority and because you don't know who ultimately wrote or contributed to the Wiki entry, it's difficult to assess authority. However, Wikis, like Wikipedia can be great places to get a general overview. And, there might be times when you legitimately need to cite a Wiki, for example, you're writing a paper about the use of Wikis.

An entry from Wikipedia will not have an obvious date, but you should include the date of the current version of the entry. You will need to select “View history” on the page and use the date of the version you used. Most wikis will not include a date because the material has the potential to be edited frequently. Because of this, you should also include the retrieval date in the URL.

Example Wiki article with archives (e.g. from Wikipedia)

Psychology. (2020, January 24). In Wikipedia.

Example Wiki without archives

Pizza. (n.d.). In DavisWiki. Retrieved February 6, 2020, from