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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

Authors and Contributors

Author Names

APA Style tries to alleviate any potential gender bias by only including last names and initials of authors. Even if a full name is included on the source, only list the last name and first and middle initials (if given).


Single Author

When only one author is responsible for the work, list last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initials (if given).

Examples

Gawande, A. (2014). Being mortal: Medicine and what matters in the end. Metropolitan Books.

Inskip, C. (2015, July/August). Making information literacy relevant in employment settings. Online Searcher, 39(4), 54-57. http://www.infotoday.com/onlinesearcher/


Two Authors

When there are two authors responsible for a work, the first author listed should start the citation. Author names are inverted with last name first, comma, first and middle initial (if given). Connect the two names with the & symbol.

Examples

Dorris, M., & Erdrich, L. (1999). The crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers.

Karber, S., & Fasano, N. (2003). What you need to know about the smallpox vaccine. Nursing, 33(6), 36-43.


Multiple Authors (up to 20)

When there are multiple authors (up to 20), list all authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Names should be inverted with last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initial (if given). Names are separated by a comma with an & symbol connecting the final author.

Examples

Sajid, M., Tahira, P., Allah, D., Faisa, I., & Jaishri, M. (2014). Effectiveness of school-based intervention programs in reducing prevalence of overweight. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 39(2), 87-93. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.132724.

Ahmed, M., Sevdalis, N., Paige, J., Paragi-Gururaja, R., Nestel, D., & Arora, S. (2012). Identifying best practice guidelines for debriefing in surgery: A tri-continental study. American Journal of Surgery, 203(4), 523-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2011.09.024


Multiple Authors (more than 20)

When there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author's name. Names should be inverted with last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initial (if given). Do not include an ampersand (&) before the final author after the ellipsis.

Example

Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A.M., Adam, N., Adamovova, L., Ahn, C., Ahn, H., ... McCrae, R.R. (2005, October 7). National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. iScience, 310, 96-100. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1117199


Multiple Works - Same Author

When the same author is responsible for two or more sources in your References page, list the sources by year of publication with the earliest first. If the publication date is the same, add a, b, c, etc. to the date.

Examples

Morrison, T. (1994). The bluest eye. Knopf.

Morrison, T. (1998). Beloved: A novel. Knopf.


Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36, 416–428. https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.2.416

Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 945–959. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.34.4.945


Author and Editor

When a source has an author and editor, start the citation with the author's name - last name first. The editor goes after the entry title and before the book title and includes the descriptive abbreviated label Ed. or Eds.

Examples

Carroll, M. P. (1996). Myth. In D. Levinson & M. Ember (Eds.), Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vol. 3, pp. 827-831). Henry Holt and Company.

Theilmann, J. M. (2009). Air pollution history. In S.I. Dutch (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global warming. https://salempress.com*

*Note: If no DOI has been assigned to the content and you are accessing the source from a private database (e.g. a library database), it is not necessary to include the database in the citation or the password protected URL. You can include the URL of the publisher, but you may need to do a quick web search to locate it. This is reflected in​ the second example above. (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, pp. 191-192)


Editor(s)

When the person or persons primarily responsible for producing the work is an editor, and you are citing the entire work, list editor name(s) in the author position using the same rules for authors, but followed by the descriptive abbreviated label Ed. or Eds.

Examples

Haerens, M. (Ed.). (2011). Air pollution. Greenhaven Press.

Holland, M. & Hart-Davis, R. (Eds.). (2000). The complete letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt.


Translator(s)

When a source has been translated from another language, include the translator, but begin the citation with the original author.

Examples

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). Basic Books.

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). (Original work published 1900)


Corporate Author

If an organization acts as the author, the organization name goes in the author position of the citation.

Examples

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009, October 23). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance/exclusion.htm

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). About APA. https://www.apa.org/about/


No Author

A work is treated as though it has no author, if the author is unknown or cannot easily be determined. If there is no author, move the title of the work to the author position before the date of publication. Remember that when an organization is responsible for creating a work, the work should be referenced with a corporate author.

Example

US election 2020: What is a caucus and how do they work? (2020, February 4). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51273719