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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

Books and Ebooks

Book - One Author

When only one author is responsible for the work, list last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initials (if given). If the book has a DOI, include it in the reference.

Basic Format for a Print Book with a DOI

Author(s)’ Last Name(s), Initial(s). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Publisher. DOI

Example

Gawande, A. (2014). Being mortal: Medicine and what matters in the end. Metropolitan Books.


Book - Multiple Authors

List up to twenty authors. If there are more than twenty, follow the guidelines outlined in the authors section of this guide. List author names in the order in which they appear on the source. Names should be inverted with last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initial (if given). Names are separated by a comma with an & symbol connecting the final author.

Examples

Dorris, M., & Erdrich, L. (1999). The crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers.

Willmott, C., & Macip, S. (2016). Where science and ethics meet: Dilemmas at the frontiers of medicine and biology. Praeger.


Book with Editor(s)

When the person or persons primarily responsible for producing the work is an editor, and you are citing the entire work, list editor name(s) in the author position using the same rules for authors, but followed by the descriptive abbreviated label Ed. or Eds.

Examples

Haerens, M. (Ed.). (2011). Air pollution. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.

Holland, M. & Hart-Davis, R. (Eds.). (2000). The complete letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt.

Keeling, A., & Wall, B. (Eds.). (2015). Nurses and disasters: Global, historical case studies. Springer Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1891/9780826126733


Book with Author and Editor

When a source has an author and editor, start the citation with the author's name - last name first. The editor goes after the entry title and before the book title and includes the descriptive abbreviated label Ed. or Eds.

Examples

Carroll, M. P. (1996). Myth. In D. Levinson & M. Ember (Eds.), Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vol. 3, pp. 827-831). Henry Holt and Company.


Book with Edition and/or Volume Number

When a source has an identified edition and/or volume number, it is identified in parenthesis after the title.

Examples

Carroll, M. P. (1996). Myth. In D. Levinson & M. Ember (Eds.), Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vol. 3, pp. 827-831). Henry Holt and Company.

Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (2007). Television: The critical view (7th ed.). Oxford University Press.


Ebook in Database

If the ebook has a DOI, include that in the reference.

If no DOI has been assigned to the content and you are accessing the source from a private database (e.g. a library database), it is not necessary to include the database in the citation or the password protected URL. You can include the URL of the publisher, but you may need to do a quick web search to locate it. This is reflected in the second example below.

Examples

Sternberg, R. (2017). Career paths in psychology: Where your degree can take you (3rd ed.). American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/15960-000 

Liu, X. (2010). The Silk Road in world history. Oxford University Press. http://global.oup.com/?cc=us​


Ebook on a Website

When an ebook is found in a website, include the URL at the end of the citation.

Examples

Twain, M. (1884). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. www.read.gov/books/pageturner/huckfinn/

Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula. www.gutenberg.org/files/345/345-h/345-h.htm


Ebook on an E-reader

Include the ebook version in the citation in brackets when applicable.

Examples

Conroy, P. (2013). The death of Santini: The story of a father and his son [Kindle version]. Random House.

Brill, P. (2004). The winner’s way [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/007142363X