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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

About Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media may include TV, film, music, podcasts, scores, and more. The formatting for these references follows pattern depending on whether the work stands alone (e.g. album, podcast series) or is a part of a greater whole (e.g. song on an album). Visit the APA Style Website for full instructions and more examples of how to cite audiovisual materials.

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets in the title of the reference. What is listed in the source element of the reference will depend on whether the work stands alone or is part of a greater whole. If the source stands alone include the name of the production company, label, or other publisher. If the source is part of the greater whole, include the title of the whole as well as the name of the producer, label, or publisher.

Music and Podcasts

For songs and albums, include a URL for retrieval if that song or album is only available in one location. It is not usually necessary to specify how you listened to an album or song.


Artist, A. A. (Date). Title of work [description]. Label. URL


Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Specific Song on an Album

Artist, A. A. (Date). Song title [Description]. On Album title. Label.


Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Musical Score

Find more examples of referencing musical scores on the APA Style Website.


Haydn, F. J. (2001). The creation. Mineola, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1798)

Mozart, W. A. (1970). Die Zauberflöte [The magic flute], K. 620 [Vocal score]. Munich, Germany: Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlung. (Original work published 1791)


The examples below include an episode of a podcast and an entire podcast. Begin the reference by listing the host as the author and include their role in parentheses. Following the title include the description of the podcast including whether it is audio or video. If the URL for the podcast is unknown, you may omit it.


Demby, G. (Host). (2020, July 8). An immune system. On Code switch [Audio podcast]. NPR.

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-Present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.