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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.

This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.

In-Text Citations

Overview of In-Text Citations

Type of Citation First Citation in Text (Narrative format) Subsequent Citations in Text (Narrative format) Parenthetical format, first citation in Text Parenthetical format, Subsequent Citations in
Text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by three or more authors Bradley et al. (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley et al., 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
Groups (readily identified through abberviation) as authors National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Gropus (no abbreviations) as authors University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005).

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 266)


Direct Quote

If the author(s) of the source are not introduced in the text leading to the quote, include their last names at the end of the quotation along with the year of publication and a page number.

Example

Their book mentions that these "notions of sisterhood, as expressed in the current women’s movement, offer some insights into the alienation many black women have expressed about the movement itself" (Guidroz & Berger, 2009, p. 27).

Corresponding Reference Entry

Guidroz, K. & Berger, M.T. (2009). The intersectional approach: Transforming the academy through race, class, and gender. University of North Carolina Press.


Direct Quote - Author Introduced in Text

When the author(s) of the source are introduced in the text leading to the quote, only the year of publication and page number is included at the end of the sentence.

Example

As reported by Holland, the Department of Defense "issued a directive telling senior leaders they must now assess and plan for the risks posed by climate change" (2016, p.60).

Corresponding Reference Entry

Holland, A. (2016, June). Preventing tomorrow's climate wars. Scientific American, 314(6), 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0616-60


Paraphrased Idea

If the author(s) of the source are not introduced in the text leading to the paraphrased idea, include their last name(s) at the end of the paraphrased section along with the year of publication. This is the parenthetical format for in-text citations.

Example

This court case between Jack Kirby and Marvel Comics over the rights to many major comic book characters, including the Avengers and Captain America was eventually decided in Marvel Comics favor, to the outrage of many fans (House, 2015).

Corresponding Reference Entry

House, M. A. (2015, September 2). Marvel V. Kirby: A clash of comic book titans in the work made for hire arena. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 30(4), 933-964. https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2079&context=btlj


Paraphrase - Author Introduced in Text

If the author(s) of the source are introduced in the text leading to the paraphrased idea, only the year of publication is included at the end of the sentence. This is the narrative format for in-text citations.

Example

According to Mattessich (2013), the documentary Grizzly Man is a good example of the idea of the global man or animal.

Corresponding Reference Entry

Mattessich, S. (2013, March 1). An anguished self-subjection: Man and animal in Werner Herzog's grizzly man. English Studies in Canada, 39(1), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.1353/esc.2013.0016


No Author

If there is no identified author of the source, include a shortened version of the title at the end of the direct quote or paraphrased idea along with the year of publication.

Example

There was support in the UK to "establish a national home for Jewish people in Palestine" with the Balfour Declaration ("Balfour Declaration," 2013).

Corresponding Reference Entry:

Balfour Declaration. (2013). In C. Glasse (Ed.), The new encyclopedia of Islam (4th ed., pp. 82-86). Rowman & Littlefield.


Corporate Author

If the author of the source is a corporate entity or organization, include the name at end of the direct quote or paraphrased idea along with the year of publication.

Example

This is much longer than most people think is necessary to be isolated when experiencing flu symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).

Corresponding Reference Entry

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance/exclusion.htm


Block Quote

For quotations that are more than forty words, place the quotations in a block of text without quotation marks. The entire quotation should be indented 1/2 inch from the margin and should maintain double-spacing. The in-text citation should be placed in parenthesis after the period at the end of the quoted section.

Example

Of course, it can always be said that:

If we define Afrofuturism as African American cultural production and political theory that imagine less constrained black subjectivity in the future and that produce a profound critique of current social, racial, and economic orders, then there can be no doubt that Monáe stands at the center of a new form of Afrofuturism that she performs through what the liner notes from her EP Metropolis (inspired by Fritz Lang’s classic 1927 film of the same name) term "cybersoul," a complex blend of multiple, often technologically mediated musical genres. (English & Kim, 2013, p. 217)

Corresponding Reference Entry

English, D. K. & Kim. A. (2013). Now we want our funk cut: Janelle Monáe's Neo-Afrofuturism. American Studies, 52(4), 217-230.