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APA Style Guide, 7th ed.
This guide provides tips and examples for APA style formatting of papers and citations.
Why is citation important?Citing your sources in college assignments gives you credibility.
Document all sources used to write your research paper. Documentation is essential to demonstrate to your reader the quality of your research, to allow the reader to access the original source, and to avoid plagiarism by giving proper credit for the words, works, and ideas of others.
For each source used in your project, include a detailed entry in a list of references on a new page at the end of the paper and a brief in-text citation which signals to the reader that the information provided is from a source other than yourself.
Exceptions: There are two situations where a source needs to be cited in-text only (in the body of your paper).
If you are describing an entire website, but not referring to a specific fact or idea from the site, it is OK to simply list the URL in an in-text citation. You do not need to include it in your list of references.
Any personal communication or experience like an email, interview you conducted, or referencing a live performance is cited in-text only since these types of sources would not be accessible for the reader after the fact.
References should follow the rules outlined in the APA Manual (examples in Reference List tab).
References may not be necessary for information and ideas which are common knowledge or widely known by the average reader. If you are unsure whether information or ideas are common knowledge, consult with your instructor prior to finalizing your paper.
As a response to COVID-19, the APA is temporarily allowing free access to the publication manual.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition by American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple languages, it is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, communications, education, business, engineering, and other fields. Known for its authoritative, easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, language, and tone that will result in powerful, concise, and elegant scholarly communication. It guides users through the scholarly writing process--from the ethics of authorship to reporting research through publication. The seventh edition is an indispensable resource for students and professionals to achieve excellence in writing and make an impact with their work. The seventh edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect best practices in scholarly writing and publishing. All formats are in full color, with a new tabbed spiral version Improved ease of navigation, with many additional numbered sections to help users quickly locate answers to their questions Resources for students on writing and formatting annotated bibliographies, response papers, and other paper types as well as guidelines on citing course materials Dedicated chapter for new users of APA Style covering paper elements and format, including sample papers for both professional authors and student writers New chapter on journal article reporting standards that includes updates to reporting standards for quantitative research and the first-ever qualitative and mixed methods reporting standards in APA Style New chapter on bias-free language guidelines for writing about people with respect and inclusivity in areas including age, disability, gender, participation in research, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality More than 100 new reference examples covering periodicals, books, audiovisual media, social media, webpages and websites, and legal resources More than 40 new sample tables and figures Expanded guidance on ethical writing and publishing practices, including how to ensure the appropriate level of citation, avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, and navigate the publication process Guidelines that support accessibility for all users, including simplified reference, in-text citation, and heading formats as well as additional font options